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2017年成人学位英语考试阅读理解强化练习及答案二
时间:2016-12-20     来源:168网校  (全面资讯快报  顶级试听体验)    访问点击量:296

Human needs seem endless. When a hungry man gets a meal, he begins to think  about an overcoat; when a manager gets a new sports car, a big house and  pleasure boats dance into view.

The many needs of mankind might be regarded as making up several levels.  When there is money enough to satisfy one level of needs, another level  appears.

The first and most basic level of needs involves food. Once this level is  satisfied, the second level of needs, clothing and some sort of shelter,  appears. By the end of World War II, these needs were satisfied for a great  majority of Americans. Then a third level appeared. It included such items as  automobiles and new houses.

By 1957 or 1958 this third level of needs was fairly well satisfied. Then,  in the late 1950s, a fourth level of needs appeared: the "life enriching" level.  While the other levels involve physical satisfaction, that is, the feeding,  comfort, safety, and transportation, this level stresses mental needs for  recognition, achievement, and happiness. It includes a variety of goods and  services, many of which could be called "luxury" items. Among them are vacation  trips, the best medical and dental care, and recreation. Also included here are  fancy goods and the latest styles in clothing.

On the fourth level, a lot of money is spent on services, while on the  first three levels more is spent on goods. Will consumers raise their sights to  a fifth level of needs as their income increases, or will they continue to  demand luxuries and personal services on the fourth level?

A fifth level would probably involve needs that can be achieved best by  community action. Consumers may be spending more on taxes to pay for government  action against disease, ignorance, crim, and prejudice. After filling our  stomachs, our clothes closets, our garages, our teeth, and our minds, we now may  seek to ensure the health, safety, and leisure to enjoy more fully the good  things on the first four levels.

11. According to the passage, man will begin to think about such needs as  housing and clothing only when _____.

A. he has saved up enough money

B. he has grown dissatisfied with his simple shelter

C. he has satisfied his hunger

D. he has learned to build houses

[答案]C

【精析】本题答案对应于第一、三段。文章的第一段提到一个人有了吃的就会想到再要件衣服,第三段又说最基本的需求是食物,这个层次的需求得到满足后人就会考虑服装和住的地方。综合判断,所以选C,即他不再饥饿后就会产生对住处和衣服的需求。

12. It can be inferred from the passage that by the end of World War Ⅱ, most Americans _____.

A. were very rich

B. lived in poverty

C. had the good things on the first three levels

D. did not own automobiles

[答案]D

【精析】文章第三段中说第二次世界大战结束时,对于大多数美国人来说,食品、服装以及住所的需求都满足了,然后第三个层次的需求,包括汽车和新房子便出现了。这说明第二次世界大战结束时大多数美国人还没有汽车。A“很富有”,意思不明。B“生活在贫困中”,不符合文意。C“满足了前三个层次的需求”,也不正确,因为这时第三个层次的需求才刚刚出现。

13. Which of the following is NOT related to "physical satisfaction"?

A. A successful career.

B. A comfortable home.

C. A good meal.

D. A family car.

[答案]A

【精析】本题答案对应于文章的第四段,第四段第三行说physical  satisfaction包括食物、生活舒适、有安全感、有交通工具,在B、C、D中都有体现。故选A.

14. What is the main concern of man on the fourth level?

A. The more goods the better.

B. The more mental satisfaction the better.

C. The more “luxury” items the better.

D. The more earnings the better.

[答案]B

【精析】本题答案对应文章第四段,其中第四行this level,也就是第四个层次的需求强调的是精神需求,所以选B.

15. The author tends to think that the fifth level _____.

A. would be little better than the fourth level

B. may be a lot more desirable than the first four

C. can be the last and most satisfying level

D. will become attainable before the government takes actions

[答案]B

【精析】本题考查考生对作者意思的整体把握。先看A“比第四个层次要好一些”,意思含糊。C“是最终的、最令人满意的需求层次”,太绝对。D“在政府采取行动之前就能实现”,不合文意。文章说第五个层次的需求要通过集体行动实现,即人们付钱给政府,让其对抗疾病、愚昧、犯罪与不公。可见这要在政府采取行动后实现。而B的意思是“比前四个层次的需求更值得拥有”,这是正确的。

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